Hair analysis. At present, the problem is that forensic scientists face is DNA breaks down pretty quickly when it is not in the living cells. And when the long hair, the cells that make up the hair shaft dies because they stretch and move towards the far sourcing nutrients. DNA can only exist inside the hair when it was hidden in the mitochondria, and it does not contain all of the information in the DNA in the cell nucleus. Because of the very small amount of DNA in the mitochondria is often not sufficient to identify, the scientist must further analysis by observation under a microscope. They can observe about hair color and the specific characteristics of the hair to see if a hair sample review from the scene of the crime are in line with the suspect or not.
But experts do not believe that such analysis is really objective, and last year, the FBI has admitted that they had overestimated the ability of the person examined when analyzing computer fit of hair samples for decades. George Sansabaugh-Professor of biomedical and forensic science at the University of California, Berkeley States that “because of the difficulty has been known in obtaining reliable information from forms of hair, and the difficulty of extracting DNA from the hair, so very little when the hair becomes evidence to consider.”
A better method about Protein
On the other hand, more stable DNA-protein and also very profuse in the hair. The mutation in DNA is translated into proteins, and sometimes they can even change the structure of protein by amino-acid exchanges with each other. Deon Anex, a Livermore chemist ear and is also the co-author of the study, said “we have been seeking such changes in protein structure and in that way, we can deduce what the original DNA”. In other words, even when no longer DNA or decomposed by light, temperature or other environmental factors, the benign change in the protein found in the hair can also be used to determine the identity.
Anex and his team analyzed the hair from more than 76 people lived-mostly European, as well as the hair on the 6 remaining skeletons from the years of 1700 and 1800. They found 185 different amino acid-model-called the directive, we allow them to learn the genetic identity of the individual. They also compare the method of determining protein with DNA samples from known in the blood of that person and can determine exactly who has the hair samples that 98.3% of the times. The possibility of errors when analyzing proteins only 1.98%
Overall, protein analysis brings the ability to distinguish 1/100,000, meaning that only distinguish 1 individual in 100,000 people have the same structural changes. Meanwhile, the DNA in the mitochondria in the hair, providing a type-specific in every 10,000 people, that means the new technology could be a step towards improvement of the shortcomings in the scientific forensic methods today. The team has started to expand their research to the diverse group of research on people and the proteins from other tissues such as bone, teeth and skin. Their goal is to make the identification of still more accurate to a day in protein can be used to identify individuals before the courts just like DNA. Andrew Wilson from the University of Bradford, England-who have provided samples of hair to use for checking the technology: “because the protein is abundant and stronger DNA, so this can open up new research direction in biological and archaeological forensic science that have yet to be resolved.”