What is a fine-learning course? In comparison to ethics and logic Studies, the American studies form a much later science. While the above sciences were identified and constructed from the centuries BC, it was not until the beginning of the eighteenth century that the United States was not completely separated from philosophy in order to assert its independent position. Despite this, the concept of aesthetics and aesthetic thought appeared right from the dawn of human civilization.
Because since standing from being on his feet, humans have felt demanding about beauty as an indispensable need, simultaneously with demanding facts and ethics. In response to the thirst for truth in humans, the study was formed as a scientifically purported to determine the correctness or misbehavior in the good, mankind has built moral learning as a theory that helps humans get honest and evil, as a science and the duty of man in life. The questions that set before people about aesthetic phenomena are more complex and delicate.
The problem here has touched not only wisdom or conscience but also related to the most delicate part in emotion, intuition, vibration, both the depth of the subconscious and the unconsciousness of man. The paradox of the matter lies in that people want to present, and to convey phenomena of a very emotional nature, as vague as the smog, in the language of reason, even evidence of coherent concept in the sense of expression in logic and study ethics. Thus, for more than twenty centuries, humanity has load Holy to find the nature and characteristics of aesthetic life and the phenomena that relate to that life.
The first foundations of aesthetics
We can find the evidence of the situation above, right from the many faces of the ancient Greek philosophers, which points to explain the mystery of their beauty, many times in a pristine form and a natural outline. Appearing in the XI century BC, the Pythagorean school was the oldest school of Greek philosophy, which was interested in studying the fundamental concepts of aesthetics. According to Pythagore (571 – 497 BC), The number itself forms the essence of things.
Therefore, the perception of the world can be simplified, in the perception of the world’s operating figures. The American ideology of Pythagore sets the basis of the philosophical treatise that all existence is a collection of a series of opposing sides, creating its harmonization. The harmony of the figures is the important rule, which impacts all phenomena of life, including art. Expanding out, Pythagore noted harmony and unity in the order of the entire universe. It can be said that the theory of the numbers and universes of Pythagore is well understood by the aesthetics and that he studied the concept of harmonization on musical practice, having a great significance.
The philosophy belongs to the Pythagorean class, considering the harmony, the perfection, in the system of justification with beauty. They proposed the use of music for healing. It is a way to convey the idea of the concept, the impact of art on humans. This suggests that the Pythagorean school was soon aware of the issue of aesthetic education through the path of music. The conception of aesthetics is also a diagnostic nature of Pythagore which was Héraclite (c. 530 – 470 BC) deployed. Héraclite views eternal survival, which is the primitive element of every existence.
This cosmos, for everyone, is just one, neither one God nor one man made it, but it existed from a lifetime, which existed and would survive forever by an eternal, well-lit, burning thing, which extinguished the same thing. According to Héraclite in the world reigns of a harsh rule, there is no such thing as the field, all of which operate and change and translate as the rivers. With a concise interpretation of the words and the words of the language, Héraclite proclaimed the harsh principles of the universe: Panta Rei (all translated, all of which are always changing). He said: “Nobody has to bathe twice in the same river” and “the same things, just not have at all at once”.
As well as Pythagore, Mr. Héraclite said that beauty has an important base, but this establishment is not at the relation of figures that at the qualities of things are manifested into variations of fire. Anything that can transform, to fire and fire can also transform into any kind, as well as goods that redeem gold, and Gold exchange for such goods. In terms of beauty, Héraclite speaks to harmony as a unity of the opposing face. According to him, harmony and beauty appear through struggle.
The same harmony as between the bow and the strings
“Something that translates back and at the same time harmony with yourself. In the midst of opposition disputes, there must be a similar harmony between the bow and the strings. ” The dispute between the variance will create harmony. As the basis of beauty, the harmony of universal nature, it understands the phenomenon in the universe, in the relationship between people and people, and in artworks. Héraclite is also interested in the conceptual study of the level as a category of ancient aesthetics. According to Héraclite, the level also has universal properties, such as harmonization. It is the basis of the cosmos, that is, the rule of interest, not dependent on humans. In summary, the most important categories of aesthetics are the beauty, harmony, and the degree that has been Héraclite considered, as the reflection of the essence of the relationships of the world objected.
The American perspective of Socrate (469 – 399 BC) has created a turning point in the history of ancient American thought. In his lectures on the philosophy he recorded, Socrate expressed little attention to the problems of nature. According to him, philosophy on nature is a science without any benefits. He disregarded the empirical study of nature because the study was based on the evidence of the sense of capital that had no perceived value. The attention center of Socrate is human. And he cares about people from its practical, behavioral, and ethical practices.
The issues of aesthetics are also approached by Socrate from the perspective of that classification. Socrate is the first philosopher to have advanced humans, as the main subject of art. According to Socrate, any human activity, also aimed at a certain purpose. Cosmetic activity is also a purposeful activity. Therefore, its products must be reviewed from a practical perspective. Since then, Socrate openly speaks of the notion that aesthetic life is closely tied to public nature.
He said that there was no beauty at all, as an absolute body of things and phenomena. The beauty is only revealed throughout the relationship with a useful one and is consistent with useful ones. A beautiful thing is things that are useful for something. In order to justify his arguments, the philosopher gave a very visual example of the following: The shield is aesthetically decorated, but it becomes bad, if there is no shielding for the rider, and the stool basket will be beautiful if it rounds its function.
The significance of the concept on the strings is that Socrate has said in a rough manner the relationship between aesthetic life and practicality. He also emphasized the organic relationship between ethics and aesthetics, between good and beautiful. In it, beauty belongs to Good, and evil lies in evil. But Socrate has made such relationships so that they are identical to those of each other, and the blurring is characterized by beautiful ones. The practical conception of Socrate on beauty was not shared by Platon (427 – 347 BC).
Beauty in thought is the most important issue
As the creator of humanity’s first idealism philosophical system, Platon made a duality look at the world. According to him, there are two parallel worlds in existence: the world of ideas or the world of intuition. A world of eternity, a fairy, invariable, subliminal, pure, and a world of temporary nature translates because of just the silhouette of the world. In the American thought of Platon, beauty is the most important issue. But the beauty under Platon is not advised to look at the possible qualities of individual things, or in relation to human activity.
Because, in the real world, that human beings can sense by the senses, they all change and translate, without what is sustainable and authentic. Platon wants to look for an eternal and universal beauty for everyone. It’s an absolute beauty. This true beauty exists only in the conceptual world, and the everyday beauties that we feel are, the only photo luminance, the replica, are fragments of the conceptual beauty. In other words, the notion of beautiful opposition to the world of intuition, it is outside space and time, it is often constant and invariable.
Beauty is such a supernatural nature, so it is only possible to recognize it by reason, not the feeling. The method of cognitive beauty is not by way of creativity and receiving art but by the path of abstract reasoning. Platon has a unique depiction of human status, as the reason every step is separated from the individual beautiful things, reaching a universal beauty, to universal beauty standards, and ultimately to the highest awareness of the beautiful notion.
As with its predecessor philosophers, Platon has seen art as a reality reproduction, through the way of simulating things of emotion. However, these emotional things, which are the ones that reflect the thought. While recreated things, the artist could not reach the perception of true beauty. Through the construction of artworks, the artist replicates only the things that are possible, but the things themselves, which are copies of the concepts.
As a result, the artistic description, after all, is adopted as a copy of the copy. The simulation of the simulation, the shadow of the Shadow. As a second-class reflection, a reflection of reflections, art is not worth the perception, moreover, it mislead humans and discourage people from reaching awareness of the true nature of the world. Art, as such, is only a human attempt to show the beauty of the supernatural. But unfortunately, according to Platon again is an attempt, not perfect, a desperate attempt. The effect, an agency of art is pushing people away from the wisdom, and consequently that Platon concluded: There is no place for the art form in his ideal republic.
The American thought suffered a lot of rebuttals
When Platon’s aesthetic thought had been subjected to a response from ancient times, especially to the Aristote (384 – 322 BC), who deeply understood the type of Greek art. Different from the Platon, Aristote has always been from specific events, from the actual development of the arts, rather than surveying aesthetic issues in a manner that is self-justified. In addition to the Supergeometry works, ethics, and logic, the aesthetic thoughts that Aristote left behind for the latter are presented in two important works that can be considered as the set of concepts of beauty, which is the law enforcement and Tu from school, and partly in the Aristote-law enforcement political work is not just an important theoretical work Important, but also a reliable document on the development of Greek art.
Beauty is also a central issue in Aristote research works. In the opposite way to Platon, Aristote pulled the beauty back to the mortal Earth, considering it as the real attribute and qualities of things. As a beauty, Aristote is the highest expression where the living entity, especially humans. Man with harmony in the parts of his body is the current body of beauty and is the main subject of art. The most important sign of beauty is integrity, being Aristote conceptually as something with the head, middle, and end. These components relate to each other and rely on each other which exists.
Thus, for the beautiful Aristote, beauty has an important nature. It is not present in the notion, such as the conception of Platon, or in the number of abstract ties, such as the notion of Pythagore, which in actual things, in real relationships and attributes. Because of the notion that beauty is present not only in action but also in non-motor things. Aristotle considered the manifestation of beauty both in stationary subjects, in variable subjects.
The above signs, of beauty, are of universal nature, that is, they manifest themselves both in nature, society, and man. According to Aristotle, the real beauty of the world is the roots of aesthetic consciousness and art. However, while affirming the subjective signs of beauty, Aristote also paid attention to the subjective conditions of a beautiful reception. In terms of art, Aristote considered it a parody, that is, the simulation, reflecting reality. This simulation is done by rhythm, language, and reconciliation. The simulation principle is used not only in the art of forming but in poetry and music.
Art is very relevant to human life
The theory of imitation has created a huge gap between the idea of Platon and the Aristote Idei. As above said, with Platon, the art of passing is a reproduction of the things, which are the mapping of the concepts. Aristote is contrary, fully aware of the richness of the world’s senses, of things and phenomena of fact. According to him, art is based on a human orientation that is biased towards reflection. In the FA-study, Mr. Aristote wrote: “People are capable of reflecting from their childhood, and the more it is distinguished from other animals, the likelihood of which is growing, whereby it possesses the first knowledge”.
Consequently, art has the perception attribute, or rather, it is one of the forms of human cognitive activity. The study of the human reflection capability facilitated the Aristote in profound, artistic truth issues, not by abstract reasoning but based on the achievements of Greek art. Aristote also spends a position in his works, to discuss the educational role of the arts. According to him, art is not a field of self-worth with human life, it gives people the joy of awareness, and contributes to the perfection of human moring.
The art of enhancing human dignity, because, through purification of the soul, it has freed humans from evil lust. The thought of having the foundation for the aesthetics of Aristotle’s artifacts, which would later be developed systematically by the fine-time American School of Botany such as Voltaire, Diderot,… The Russian revolutionary Democrat Biélinski, Tchernychevski, Herzen, Dobrolioubov,… And the reasoning of the American School of Marxist.
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What is an aesthetics learning course?
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